B04501021 Shih-Yuan Pai, B04501034 Tsu-Cheng Lee, B04501042 Ping-Hung Lo
Dawson Conway, Jose Garibay, Drew Williams, Alex Urias, Hirshi Brandon
Students from Washington State University (WSU) cooperated with us on a project. The objective of this project is to design buildings which will be placed in Shanlin, Kaohsiung. The buildings should meet earthquake resistance criteria. Students in WSU executed BIM project execution plans. We received three BIM project execution plans including Team 5, Team 7, and Team 3. We used ETABS to do structural analyses. We also estimated costs of materials which are used to build houses for three projects.
2. PROJECT SCHEDULE
Table 1: Project schedule
We use the following tools to do our projects:
- Communication tools: Sococo and email
- Structural analyses: ETABS
- Architectural Design: Autodesk Revit
4. STRUCTURAL ANALYSES FOR THREE PROJECTS
Team 5 designs a 3-story building.
Figure 1: Completed structural analyses for Team 5
In the first and second story, we use 28 pieces of column W14x233. The length of the column is 3.7m. In the third story we use four pieces of column W14x211. The length of the column is 3.7m. We use 44 pieces of beam W12x96 for the 3-story structure. The length of the beam is 5.0 m.
Team 7 designs two different structures. Thus, we do structural analyses separately. In order to present clearly, we use Team 7-1 and Team 7-2 to describe two structures.
Figure 2: Completed structural analyses for Team 7-1
In this 2-story structure, we use 28 pieces of column W14x211. The length of the column is 3.5m. Moreover, we use 32 pieces of beam W12x96 with 4.8 m for the 2-story structure. We also use 16 pieces of beam W12x96 and the length of the beam is 10.2 m.
Figure 4: Completed structural analyses for Team 3
For this 3-story building, we use 11 pieces of column W14x193. The length of the column is 3.7m. We also use 22 pieces of column W14x257. The length of the column is 3.7m. We use 45 pieces of beam W12x96 for the 3-story structure. The length of the beam is 5m.
In considering earthquake resistant design, we use ETABS software to execute the response spectrum function. Figure 5 shows the processes to execute the response spectrum function.
Figure 5: Processes to execute the response spectrum function
Live loads (LL) of the structure for Team 3 is presented in Table 2 and dead loads (DL) of the structure for Team 3 is demonstrated in Table 3. We decide the loads according to the seismic design specification in Taiwan and our judgments. Table 2 indicates that LL of the roof floor is equal to 150 kg/m2 (i.e., 1.47 kN/m2) and LL of general floor is equal to 200 kg/m2 (i.e., 1.962 kN/m2). Because there is staircase in the roof floor, we decide LL for staircase in the roof is 400 kg/m2. Table 3 demonstrates that DL of the roof floor is equal to 160 kg/m2 (i.e., 1.57 kN/m2) and DL of general floor is equal to 200kg/m2 (i.e., 1.962kN/m2).
Table 2: LL of the structure for Team 3
Table 3: DL of the structure for Team 3
5. COST ESTIMATION
We estimate the materials used to build the buildings after we finish structural analyses. We collect data regarding unit cost for columns, beams, and floor slab from the website. We have quantity of materials we need to build the buildings from the ETABS. We use quantity data and other information to calculate the weight for columns and beams. Costs for columns or beams are equal to weights times unit cost per ton. Costs of Team 5 are presented in Table 4. Costs of Team 7 are shown in Table 5. Table 6 demonstrates costs of Team 3. According to these three tables, we find that materials costs of Team 7 project are the highest and the materials costs of Team 5 are the lowest.
Table 4: Cost of Team 5 project
Table 5: Cost of Team 7 project
Table 6: Cost of Team 3 project
6. LESSONS LEARNED
We have learned the following things through doing this project:
- We have learned how to use ETABS to do structural analyses.
- We have learned how to solve the problems we met. For example, the b/c ratio is above the limit. The design of columns is not acceptable for earthquake resistance. After we surf the website, we find that the idea about strong column and weak beam structure (see Figure 6(a) and (b)). According to the concept, hinge damage can occur on the beam first if the structural deformation is caused by earthquake. Energy can be absorbed by beam deformation. Thus, the possibility of column deformation and damage will reduce.Thus, we reduce the cross section of the beams and increase the cross section of the columns. We solve the problems.
- We have learned how to decide the loads according to the seismic design specifications or regulations.
- We have learned how to estimate costs of materials for building different structures.
- We have learned how to communicate with team members in different places. Except email, we can use Sococo to hold a conference call.
- We have learned that the BIM project execution plan is helpful for design a building.
- We have learned how to create a sense of commitment among team members.
Figure 6: Concept of strong column and weak beam
We are happy to join the global project and work with team members in WSU. Although the schedule of the project is tight, all team members do their best to finish their work on time. Our project is subject to limitations. We estimate costs of materials to build the buildings; however, we cannot estimate labor costs and contraction costs such as excavating, filling, or grading. Despite this limitation, we believe that the structural analyses of this project are completed.